The Twelve Nidanas

The twelve steps of the doctrine of dependent arising, in the forward direction:

1-2. The arising of form (sankhara) from ignorance (avidja);

2-3. The arising of consciousness (vinnana) from form;

3-4. The arising of mentality-materiality (mind and body) (nama-rupa) from consciousness;

4-5. The arising of the six senses (salayatana) from mentality-materiality;

5-6. The arising of contact (phassa) from the six sense base;

6-7. The arising of feeling (vedana) from contact;

7-8. The arising of craving (tanha) from feeling;

8-9. The arising of clinging (upadana) from craving;

9-10. The arising of being (bhava) from clinging;

10-11. The arising of birth (jati) from being; and

11-12. The arising of old age, sickness and death (dukkha) from birth.

The twelve steps in the backward direction:

1-2. The cessation of form (sankhara) upon cessation of ignorance (avidja);

2-3. The cessation of consciousness (vinnana) upon cessation of form;

3-4. The cessation of mentality-materiality (mind and body) (nama-rupa) upon cessation of consciousness;

4-5. The cessation of the six senses (salayatana) upon cessation of mentality-materiality;

5-6. The cessation of contact (phassa) upon cessation of the six sense base;

6-7. The cessation of feeling (vedana) upon cessation of contact;

7-8. The cessation of craving (tanha) upon cessation of feeling;

8-9. The cessation of clinging (upadana) upon cessation of craving;

9-10. The cessation of being (bhava) upon cessation of clinging;

10-11. The cessation of birth (jati) upon cessation of being; and

11-12. The cessation of old age, sickness and death (dukkha) upon cessation of birth.





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